Human Health Research

Rohde, C., et al. 2015. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Reduce Postoperative Interleukin-1β, Pain, and Inflammation: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction Patients. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, May, New York, NY.

Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been shown to reduce postoperative pain, inflammation, and narcotic requirements after breast reduction and augmentation surgical procedures. This study examined whether pulsed electromagnetic field therapy could produce…Read Abstract

Rohde, C., et al. 2009. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Post Operative Pain: A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study in Breast Reduction Patients.Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

Post-surgical pain increases patient morbidity and slows healing, particularly if narcotics are employed for pain management. Therefore the surgeon is continually looking for other means to control post-operative pain. There is a growing body of clinical…Read Abstract

Strauch, et al. 2009. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Increase Angiogenesis in a Rat Myocardial Ischemia Model. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

Myocardial ischemia with consequent loss of functioning cardiac muscle, continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in our society. In response to ischemic injury the myocardium attempts to retain or increase its blood supply.…Read Abstract

Pilla, A. 2009. Unified Mechanism for Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Bioeffects: Cellular, Animal and Clinical Evidence. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

The author proposed starting in 1972 that weak EMF signals could be configured to modulate ion binding at electrified cell membrane/aqueous interfaces using the electrochemical information transfer model. That model described all voltage dependent…Read Abstract

Johnson, et al. Modulation of carrageenan-induced paw edema and hyperalgesiain the rat with pulsed magnetic field therapy. Bioelectromagnetic Society Meeting, June 2008. San Diego, CA.

Post-operative acute inflammation continues to affect a significant percentage of surgical patients. Current anti-inflammatory agents rarely cause a decrease in recovery time, and harbor several potential side effects and adverse drug interactions.…Read Abstract

Pilla, A. 2008. A proposed electrochemical mechanism for EMF Bioeffects.Bioelectromagnetics Society, June, 2008. San Diego, CA.

This study proposes PEMF accelerates tissue repair by directly affecting the kinetics of Ca2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM). This allows a priori configuration of EMF signals to optimally couple to the Ca2+/CaM transduction pathway, from which further…Read Abstract

Heden, P and Pilla, A. 2008. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Postoperative Pain: A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study in Breast Augmentation Patients. Aesth Plast Surg 32: 660.

Postoperative pain may be experienced after breast augmentation surgery despite advances in surgical techniques which minimize trauma. The use of pharmacologic analgesics and narcotics may have undesirable side effects that can add to patient morbidity.…Read Abstract

Casper, D. 2008. PEMF potentiates the Induction of Nitric Oxide by Glutamate and 6-Hydroxydopamine in a Neuronal Cell Line. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for neuronal viability, but it can also be toxic in high concentrations. Generally, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces NO that participates in survival signaling pathways. During inflammation, inducible NOS (iNOS)…Read Abstract

Casper, D, et al. 2008. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Modulate cyclic GMP via a Nitric Oxide-Dependent manner in a Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Line. Society for Neuroscience.

There is currently no neuroprotective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, where dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra degenerate. Experimental evidence provides several mechanisms by which neuronal survival might be increased that include;…Read Abstract

Strauch, et al. 2007. Pulsed Magnetic Fields Accelerate Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120: 425.

Previous studies of pulsed magnetic fields have reported enhanced fracture and chronic wound healing, endothelial cell growth, and angiogenesis. This study characterizes the biomechanical changes that occur when standard cutaneous wounds are exposed to…Read Abstract

Patel, M. el al. 2006. Limited Myocardial Muscle Necrosis Model Allowing for Evaluation of Angiogenic Treatment Modalities. Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, 22, 611.

The currently accepted model for creating infarcted cardiac tissue in a rat model involves ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), either proximally or at the bifurcation level. This procedure requires significant technical expertise and,…Read Abstract

Strauch, et al. Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy Increases Tensile Strength in a Rat Achilles’ Tendon Repair Model. J Hand Surg 2006;31:1131–1135.

To examine the effect of pulsing electromagnetic fields on the biomechanic strength of rat Achilles’ tendons at 3 weeks after transection and repair.Read Abstract

Weber, et al. 2004. Experimental Pulsed Magnetic Fields Applied to a Transferred Arterial Loop Support the Rat Groin Composite Flap. Plast. Reconstr.Surg. 114: 1185.

Pulsed magnetic fields have been shown to stimulate neovascularization in the authors’ laboratory. The rat groin composite flap was used to create a prospective randomized trial to test the effectiveness of these pulsed magnetic fields. The skin paddle to…Read Abstract

Roland, et al. 2000. Pulsed Magnetic Energy on a Microsurgically Transferred Vessel. Plast. Reconstr. Surg 105:1371.

This article reports the findings of a study that attempted to elucidate whether pulsed magnetic energy stimulates neovascularization in vivo, using a microsurgically created arterial loop model in a prospective randomized trial of 108 rats (n = 12/group).…Read Abstract

Kloth, et al. 1999. Effect of pulsed radio frequency stimulation on wound healing: A double-blind pilot clinical study. Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, F Bersani, ed. Plenum, NY, 1999, pp. 875-878.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical pilot study was aimed at determining the effect of pulsed radio frequency (PEMF) stimulation on the healing of chronic wounds in spinal cord injured patients. Based on other reports that…Read Abstract

Pilla, A., et al. 1996. Effect of pulsed radiofrequency therapy on edema from grades I and II ankle sprains: a placebo controlled, randomized, multi-site, double-blind clinical study. J Athl Train S31:53.

To determine the effect of PEMF therapy on edema volume in a ankle sprain injury. PEMF therapy was provided in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion, in addition to standard treatment (rest, elevation, compression, cryotherapy), for Grades I and II…Read Abstract

Assisi targeted PEMF (tPEMF)® technology summary

Assisi’s targeted pulsed electromagnetic field technologies emerge out of a century-long evolution of using electrical currents to improve health and healing. Pulsed electromagnetic fields are simply delivery systems for inducing electrical current. Pulsing an electromagnetic field near a conductor (such as tissue) will induce current flow in the conductor.

This simple law from physics allows currents to be induced in tissue from outside the body, without anything touching the skin. Magnetic fields penetrate through bandages, casts, fur, hair etc. The simple induction of electrical current in tissue is the functional therapeutic component of Assisi’s tPEMF® technology.

Historically, PEMF technologies were generally large, AC-powered devices that produced a substantial magnetic field. Even today, manufacturers of some PEMF devices describe them as “powerful” or “more powerful”. During much of this period of development, PEMF devices did not have a specific or known biological target. Developing medical applications of the technology was largely driven by trial and error based on unproven assumptions that greater power was likely to produce better outcomes.

We now know those assumptions to be incorrect. By the 1970s, researchers and clinicians had developed relatively low-powered PEMF devices – bone growth stimulators (BGS) – to heal recalcitrant fractures. Although demonstrated to be effective at fracture repair at low power, the specific mechanism of action remained elusive.

Arthur A. Pilla, one of the inventors of BGS technology and a professor of Biomedical Engineering at Columbia University, was also the original developer of Assisi’s targeted PEMF products. He focused significant time and resources on researching mechanisms of action for PEMF and developing PEMF signals. Among the potential targets proposed in the literature, research suggested that calcium binding was a likely candidate, in particular, the binding of calcium (Ca) to calmodulin (CaM). This particular complex is a voltage-dependent process responsible for a number of potentially therapeutic biological cascades, most importantly the natural anti-inflammatory cascade.

Learn more about the science behind the technology here.

The Ca/CaM anti-inflammatory cascade is well described. The initial binding of four calcium ions to calmodulin produces a conformational change in CaM, which, in turn, then binds to the constitutive nitric oxide syntheses (both endothelial – eNOS and neuronal – nNOS), which virtually immediately (within seconds) leads to the production of nitric oxide (NO), a principal anti-inflammatory molecule. Nitric oxide reduces pain, improves blood flow and reduces edema. It further triggers downstream effects, including the production of cGMP, the ‘energy’ molecule that then drives growth factor production, which, in turn, support new blood vessel formation, tissue regeneration and then, ultimately, to tissue remodeling.

What this means is that Assisi can bring the most effective targeted PEMF technology to veterinary medicine in small, lightweight and disposable configurations whose effectiveness is supported by a substantial and growing body of basic science and clinical research.